Teaching Students with haldol decanoate package insert Autism to Solve Mathematical Word Problems Research Frontiers
Behavior analysts working in public schools in the 1990s did haldol decanoate package insert not hear as much about autism as they do today. They would enter classrooms to work with children who usually haldol decanoate package insert were experiencing difficulty with behavior, but also demonstrated limited academic achievement. The analysts needed to figure out the best approach to haldol decanoate package insert educating these children.
Peggy schaefer whitby was one of those behavior analysts. She worked with children in the public school system who haldol decanoate package insert had significant behavioral challenges. She found that it worked to implement the principles of haldol decanoate package insert applied behavior analysis to address the behavioral and communication skills haldol decanoate package insert of the children. Over the years, she applied them to more and more children, most of whom had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.
In early elementary school, children with highfunctioning autism may be high performers. Once they arrive in middle school, though, they often hit a wall. In middle school, teachers expect more selfdirection from students. The course work becomes more applied and abstract, particularly in mathematics. Children with austism often struggle in these modes of learning. “we have an ‘I do, we do, you do’ approach.”
“there is a myth that children with autism are savants haldol decanoate package insert in mathematics,” schaefer whitby said. “certainly there are people with autism who have savanttype skills, but these kids also struggle with mathematical learning. We have children who can count and memorize math facts, but struggle with application. Problemsolving also involves reading comprehension issues.”
Many teachers have used solve it! To develop effective strategies for adolescent students with learning disabilities. Solve it! Is a set of cognitive strategies for wordproblem solving based on methods used by the best problem haldol decanoate package insert solvers. Schaefer whitby applied it to students with autism.
Solve it! Uses seven cognitive strategies, combined with metacognitive strategies, that essentially place the learner in the right mindset, or schema, to solve a problem. The seven cognitive strategies are: read, paraphrase, visualize, hypothesize, estimate, compute and check. Students memorize these steps using the pneumonic R.P.V.H.E.C.C. At each step the student uses metacognitive strategies of selfmanagement, selfchecking and selfevaluation.
To teach students with austism how to develop a useful haldol decanoate package insert approach to solving word problems, schaefer whitby had them watch how she solved a problem. As they “caught on” to her approach, they would solve a problem with her and, eventually, solve a problem independently.
Soon they solved problems using the new strategies without someone haldol decanoate package insert telling them how. After 10 days they consistently solved the problems correctly. In three weeks they applied the strategies to the general haldol decanoate package insert education setting. “I could see on their classroom papers where they wrote haldol decanoate package insert R.P.V.H.E.C.C. And checked off as they went along,” she said. “we look at how these kids visualize and use schema.”
Students with highfunctioning autism tend to read — and see the world — in a very literal and concrete manner. One of the word problems in schaefer whitby’s study described a person baking cookies. In this example, a student with good schema may visualize the cookies ordered haldol decanoate package insert on a pan, whereas a person without a good schema may draw a haldol decanoate package insert picture of mom baking the cookies.
Children with austism may have poor schema that prevents them haldol decanoate package insert from visualizing what they need to solve the problem. This can occur in a simple multiplication problem. A student with good schema represents two times three as haldol decanoate package insert two sets of three. A student who does not have good schema may visualize haldol decanoate package insert two objects in one set and three in the other.
All of the study’s participants assumed, no matter the type of problem, that the order in which they entered numbers into a haldol decanoate package insert calculator did not matter. They followed rules and used strategies they were taught in haldol decanoate package insert elementary school that did not apply to higherlevel mathematics.
“it is important for teachers to understand that we teach haldol decanoate package insert kids strategies when they are young that don’t really hold true as they get into more advanced haldol decanoate package insert mathematics,” schaefer whitby said. “we have to be careful telling kids with autism these haldol decanoate package insert rules because they will hold onto them and continue to haldol decanoate package insert use them.”
Schaefer whitby, other researchers and autism specialists do not necessarily need to haldol decanoate package insert instruct students directly or continue instruction to ensure students maintain haldol decanoate package insert the strategies. There is another method that enables students to excel academically, even students who do not participate in research projects.
“if the child does not maintain the strategies, we look at procedural facilitation,” schaefer whitby explained. “I use a video model to teach the kids how haldol decanoate package insert to use the strategy and have it in the classroom haldol decanoate package insert so a teacher does not have to be there. You can use it as a video model in priming haldol decanoate package insert where the students watch it before they solve the problem. You can also use it as a video prompt where haldol decanoate package insert the students stop at each step to see how they haldol decanoate package insert solve the problem. My next research studies will be looking at that.” “the research has implications for teachers and practitioners.”
More and more children are diagnosed with autism. Of all such children, around 30 percent are considered high functioning. They can attend school with the general populace, but many need cognitive strategy intervention like other students with haldol decanoate package insert learning disabilities.
“one of the young men that I worked with was haldol decanoate package insert brilliant,” schaefer whitby said. “he loved computers, but he only loved nonproprietary software because he can go in and change the haldol decanoate package insert code. So I had a 13yearold who could do his own programming on nonproprietary software but who could not pass mathematics. What is the future for this child? If he cannot pass mathematics, he can’t get a regular high school diploma. Yet he could be the next bill gates.”
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