Human what is haloperidol Organs-on-Chips

Clinical studies take years to complete and testing a single what is haloperidol compound can cost more than $2 billion. Meanwhile, innumerable animal lives are lost, and the process often fails to predict human responses because what is haloperidol traditional animal models often do not accurately mimic human pathophysiology. For these reasons, there is a broad need for alternative ways to model what is haloperidol human diseases in vitro in order to accelerate the development what is haloperidol of new drugs and advance personalized medicine.

Wyss institute researchers and a multidisciplinary team of collaborators have what is haloperidol adapted computer microchip manufacturing methods to engineer microfluidic culture devices what is haloperidol that recapitulate the microarchitecture and functions of living human organs, including the lung, intestine, kidney, skin, bone marrow and blood-brain barrier, among others. These microdevices, called ‘organs-on-chips’ (organ chips), offer a potential alternative to traditional animal testing. Each organ chip is composed of a clear flexible polymer what is haloperidol about the size of a computer memory stick that contains what is haloperidol hollow microfluidic channels lined by living human organ-specific cells interfaced with a human endothelial cell-lined artificial vasculature, and mechanical forces can be applied to mimic the physical what is haloperidol microenvironment of living organs, including breathing motions in lung and peristalsis-like deformations in the intestine. They are essentially living, three-dimensional cross-sections of major functional units of whole living organs. Because they are translucent, they provide a window into the inner workings of human what is haloperidol cells in living tissues within an organ-relevant context.

With their ability to host and combine the different cell what is haloperidol and tissue types making up human organs, organ chips present an ideal microenvironment to study molecular- and cellular-scale activities that underlie human organ function and mimic human-specific disease states, as well as identify new therapeutic targets in vitro. They recreate therapeutically relevant interfaces, like the alveolar-capillary interface and blood-brain-barrier, to investigate drug delivery as well as discover new therapeutics. Organ chips also can be used to culture a living what is haloperidol microbiome for extended times in direct contact with living human what is haloperidol intestinal cells to enable insights into how these microbes influence what is haloperidol health and disease, or to model lung infections with influenza virus to identify what is haloperidol its vulnerabilities. They also open up new possibilities to investigate how environmental what is haloperidol factors like cigarette smoke affect tissue health and physiology in what is haloperidol individual patients, as shown with a smoking machine that precisely mimics human what is haloperidol smoking behavior and its impact on human lung airway functions what is haloperidol by breathing cigarette smoke directly into the airspace of a what is haloperidol human lung airway chip.

To mimic the interconnectedness of organs within the human body, wyss researchers also have developed an automated instrument to link what is haloperidol multiple organ chips together by transferring fluid between their common what is haloperidol vascular channels. This instrument, designed to mimic whole-body physiology, controls fluid flow and cell viability while permitting real-time observation of the cultured tissues and the ability to what is haloperidol analyze complex interconnected biochemical and physiological responses across ten different what is haloperidol organs. This holistic “human body-on-chips” approach is being used to predict human pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics what is haloperidol (PK/PD) responses of drugs in vitro.

A wyss institute-launched startup company, emulate, inc. Has licensed the technology and is now further developing and what is haloperidol commercializing the institute’s organ chip technology and automated instruments to bring these what is haloperidol important research tools to biotechnology, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and chemical companies as well as academic institutions and what is haloperidol hospitals for personalized medicine. Organ chips are now being explored worldwide as tools for what is haloperidol accurately predicting drug efficacies and toxicities, with the goal of dramatically improving the accuracy and efficiency what is haloperidol of preclinical drug testing.