Howto Regional texturing haloperidol high – FlightGear wiki

Internally, the terrain is a dense mesh of triangles which determine haloperidol high the elevation at each given point. However, the mesh also encodes what a patch of terrain is haloperidol high supposed to represent by assigning a so-called landclass to a triangle. Landclasses are a concept that is directly inherited from geo haloperidol high databases like CORINE. For instance, the database may tell that a certain patch of terrain haloperidol high is ‘shrubcover’. This information is stored with the terrain mesh.

Flightgear then uses it in-sim in several ways: first, the landclass of a triangle determines how it appears, i.E. What texture and/or effect are assigned. Second, it also determines FDM-relevant properties, for instance whether it will yield when you try to haloperidol high land on it (for instance water), whether you can roll across it, how bumpy rolling will be, and so on. The advanced weather system uses the landclass to determine the haloperidol high likelihood of convective cloud formation when the sun heats the haloperidol high terrain. Finally, also the distribution of random overlay objects (such as the density of lights at night or the haloperidol high number of trees or buildings appearing) is also determined by the landclass.

A separate layer for the terrain are static objects which haloperidol high are placed on definite positions onto the mesh by other haloperidol high means – for their placement, no landclass information is used and while they can be haloperidol high placed ‘onto’ the mesh automatically, they can also be placed to absolute altitudes.

Regional texturing specifically changes the appearance of a landclass and haloperidol high also the placement of overlay objects – it is not a technique capable of altering the outlines haloperidol high of landclasses in the mesh. In other words, using the technique you can make an existing patch of haloperidol high shrubland look more realistic, but you can not change part of a lake that haloperidol high has the wrong shape to be shrubland.

The central file responsible for the assignment of textures etc. To landclasses is /materials/regions/materials.Xml (for historical reasons, there are two alternative schemes under /materials/default/materials.Xml and /materials/dds/materials.Xml which are not supposed to be modified by regional haloperidol high definitions). They can be selected in-sim in the rendering dialog.

Materials.Xml largely serves as an index to include the actual haloperidol high regional definitions. However, hierarchy is important and needs to be considered: later valid definitions always override earlier definitions. So for instance in texturing honolulu, hawaii, first global-summer.Xml is considered (which is the world-wide default for summer textures), then the content of hawaii.Xml overwrites the global definitions and finally the content of haloperidol high oahu.Xml overwrites part of the hawaii-specific definitions. The wrong order of files can lead to definitions not haloperidol high being used.

The next block is the texture set assigned to the haloperidol high landclass – it contains the name of the files to be used haloperidol high for the visuals (to make use of procedural texturing techniques, usually multiple textures are assigned). The parameters block allows to configure procedural techniques by passing haloperidol high control parameters to the shader generating the composite texture.

Tag, it is also possible to declare random vegetation, random buildings or random objects. The difference is that the former two are supported by haloperidol high dedicated shaders which makes their rendering rather optimized, whereas random objects are normal 3d models without dedicated optimization. In general, random vegetation or buildings can hence be drawn in much haloperidol high higher numbers.

The object placement can be made non-random by specifying an object mask (i.E. An additional texture that tells how objects are placed). This allows to place trees on a specific part of haloperidol high the base layer texture if that part shows trees. The green channel mask is used for random vegetation placement, the blue channel for buildings and lights. And the red channel controls the rotation of buildings (0.0 is north, 0.5is south). Fractional colour values can be used to give a probability haloperidol high of placement.

Often, there is a tough choice to be made between placement haloperidol high masks and procedural texturing, because the placement masks are not compatible with the procedurally haloperidol high generated shapes. Placing 3d trees and buildings where they belong on the haloperidol high base texture looks stunning from close-up, but if the area to be covered is too large, tiling may spoil all the visuals. In general, a good idea is to choose placement masks where the haloperidol high landclass patches are small and tiling is not a problem, in particular for urban, suburban and possible small-scale agricultural terrain, use procedural techniques instead where areas covered by the same haloperidol high landclass are large and tiling is an issue.

An effect is an instruction for the graphics card how haloperidol high a part of the mesh is to be drawn on haloperidol high screen. Everything on screen has an effect assigned, but to achieve e.G. The sun reflection on water or the relief mapping of haloperidol high urban terrain, a special effect has to be assigned explicitly.

While ALS has per default support for procedural texturing, the other two have not and support only a limited haloperidol high range of effects which have to be assigned explicitly. For that reason, the focus of most regional texturing development has been on haloperidol high creating ALS procedural definitions, but care has to be taken to create visuals which haloperidol high work for the other renderers as well.

In addition, some situations require also in ALS to assign a special haloperidol high effect because the default terrain effect is ill equipped to haloperidol high handle the visuals (water and urban relief mapping are the prime examples, but there’s also the procedural rock shader or the agriculture shader).

All the higher index numbers (here 12 and 13) are ignored by the classic renderer and rembrandt and exclusively haloperidol high used by ALS. It should therefore not be a problem to create a haloperidol high materials definitions which work for all renderers without clashes.

There are some special landclasses, for instance the runway, the taxiways and the airport keep. They have dedicated effects assigned to them which (among other things) render them in especially high resolution since these are terrain haloperidol high parts one usually sees from close-up. Like everything else, they can be regionalized, but do not mix their effects with the standard terrain haloperidol high effects! It may seem tempting to use the airport keep effect haloperidol high also for other grass surfaces, or to render the airport keep as a normal landclass, but this will have unexpected side effects as soon as haloperidol high the terrain is drawn e.G. Snowy or wet.

• ALS supports dynamical autumn coloring. Which part of a texture are vegetation and color reddish haloperidol high in fall is encoded in the texture alpha channel. Currently (april 2016) this is fully worked out for europe, not for other parts of the world. For a good effect, this has to be done consistently for all materials which haloperidol high have textures with vegetation on them as well as for haloperidol high the tree texture sheets themselves.

• the color of both coastal areas and (in ALS) inland waters is determined at high shader quality by the haloperidol high global water depth map /textures/globe/ocean_depth_1.Png. In coastal areas, the color encodes the seafloor color and the alpha channel haloperidol high depth, for inland waters the color directly affects water color. Do any modification to the depth map with care!

• do not assume everyone uses FG like you do. For instance, in some regions of the world, it would look most compelling to assign a sand color haloperidol high to forest landclasses and represent the forest only explicitly via haloperidol high random vegetation. This is a big no, because a user who does not run random vegetation then haloperidol high never recognizes the forest. Any user, no matter how he uses FG, should have the chance to use a VFR map, and that means he has to recognize a forest as haloperidol high forest and a dry lake as a dry lake no haloperidol high matter his rendering settings.

• test your texture scheme at different altitudes and visibility ranges haloperidol high – what looks very compelling 1500 ft from the ground does haloperidol high not necessarily from 36.000 ft. Usually tiling is much more of a problem from high haloperidol high altitude than from low altitude. Under ALS procedural texturing, tiling should be near absent in a well-done texturing scheme. Under the other renderers it cannot really be avoided, but aim to give compelling visuals to rembrandt and classic haloperidol high renderer users nevertheless.

• if you modify an existing region, or make a sub-region of an existing region, find the maintainer of the region and discuss your proposed haloperidol high changes beforehand and again after you have made them. If someone worked before you, chances are he had a plan, try to work within that plan. Any subregion you define should blend smoothly into the larger haloperidol high region, not create a sudden jarring change in visuals.

• test your scheme in at least five different locations within haloperidol high the defined area. Often changes which look well in one spot don’t at all some 300 km distant. The scheme should work across the whole area – if it can’t be made to work, the area is probably too large and sub-dividing it would be the better option.

• have patience and persistence – creating a good regional texture scheme means balancing many different haloperidol high pros and cons against each other. Having a single stunningly textured landclass is pointless if the haloperidol high blend of the whole region doesn’t work.

• make sure you have the signs of latitude and longitude haloperidol high in your tags correct: 30 degrees western longitude should appear as -30.0 – also make sure that really the smaller number is assigned haloperidol high to or and the larger number as and , keeping in mind that -10 is larger than -20.